Surabaya River is one of the lower tributary of the Brantas, which is included as the top 20 plastic polluted rivers worldwide. The main function of Surabaya River is for raw water source for Surabaya City. Besides, this river is used for domestic and industrial waste discharges, and for irrigation. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of microplastics (MPs/MP) and its characteristics in three stratified depths (surface, middle, and bottom) of the river. This study was conducted in eight sampling sites, which were located in the Lower Brantas and the Surabaya Rivers. The MP abundance in the surface, middle, and bottom of the river ranged 1.47–43.11; 0.76–12.56; and 1.43–34.63 particles/m3, respectively. The highest average of MP abundance was 21.16 particles/m3 at the lower end of the river. The MP particles tend to be mainly distributed in the surface than in the other depth levels. The MP particles in each depth were generally dominated by film shaped large MP of 1–5 mm size, and transparent in color. Three main polymer types of the MPs were low density polyethylene, polypropylene, and polyethylene.
The paper provides new insights into marine environments and human activities and suggests plastic waste should be controlled through laws that regulate waste sources and plastic additives in order to solve the problem of plastic accumulation in the oceans.
The paper strengthens the evidence that microplastics are present in the studied biota, suggesting that they are transferred between trophic levels through the interconnected food chain/web. The presence of micro plastics in fish guts highlights the need for further research on processing interventions for reducing microplastic contamination.
PPE (face masks and gloves) were surveyed at six Indian beaches. There were 496 PPE counted with an average density of 1.08 × 10−3 PPE m−2. Previous studies found similar PPE density. Face masks accounted for 98.39% of all PPE recorded, while gloves accounted for only 1.61%. As a result of the increase in vaccination[…]
The research seeks to depict and reduce marine plastic pollution in India. A GIS map has been created to show plastic input from different river basins. In order to address the challenges of marine litter in India, a guiding model has been developed. According to the predictive model, India produces 536 thousand tons of municipal[…]
Plastic research, policies, waste management, socioeconomics, challenges, and opportunities are discussed. Marine plastic studies have focused on a few locations, providing information on distribution and interactions with organisms. In addition to scientific investigation, enforcement, improvisation, and, if necessary, framing new policies, integrated technologies to manage plastic waste are essential.