Spatial and temporal distribution of microplastic in surface water of tropical estuary: Case study in Benoa Bay, Bali, Indonesia

In 2010, Indonesia estimated as the second-largest country in the world that donates plastic to the sea. This study aims to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of microplastics in tropical estuaries. The sampling was carried out in Benoa Bay with four repetitions representing the wet and dry seasons. Spatially it was found that the highest microplastic abundance around the Suwung landfill, while the lowest at Badung River Estuary, middle, and an inlet of the Benoa Bay. The highest percentage to the lowest microplastic based on the size was 500–1000 μm (37.9%), >1000 μm (35.7%), 300–500 μm (22.1%), and <300 μm (4.3%), while based on the shape were fragments (73.19%), foam (17.02%), fiber (6.38%), and granule (3.40%). No significant differences were found between the wet and dry seasons based on the abundance, but significantly varied based on size and shape. Polymers of microplastics were dominated by polystyrene, polypropylene, and polyethylene.

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