In 2010, Indonesia estimated as the second-largest country in the world that donates plastic to the sea. This study aims to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of microplastics in tropical estuaries. The sampling was carried out in Benoa Bay with four repetitions representing the wet and dry seasons. Spatially it was found that the highest microplastic abundance around the Suwung landfill, while the lowest at Badung River Estuary, middle, and an inlet of the Benoa Bay. The highest percentage to the lowest microplastic based on the size was 500–1000 μm (37.9%), >1000 μm (35.7%), 300–500 μm (22.1%), and <300 μm (4.3%), while based on the shape were fragments (73.19%), foam (17.02%), fiber (6.38%), and granule (3.40%). No significant differences were found between the wet and dry seasons based on the abundance, but significantly varied based on size and shape. Polymers of microplastics were dominated by polystyrene, polypropylene, and polyethylene.
The paper provides new insights into marine environments and human activities and suggests plastic waste should be controlled through laws that regulate waste sources and plastic additives in order to solve the problem of plastic accumulation in the oceans.
The paper strengthens the evidence that microplastics are present in the studied biota, suggesting that they are transferred between trophic levels through the interconnected food chain/web. The presence of micro plastics in fish guts highlights the need for further research on processing interventions for reducing microplastic contamination.
PPE (face masks and gloves) were surveyed at six Indian beaches. There were 496 PPE counted with an average density of 1.08 × 10−3 PPE m−2. Previous studies found similar PPE density. Face masks accounted for 98.39% of all PPE recorded, while gloves accounted for only 1.61%. As a result of the increase in vaccination[…]
The research seeks to depict and reduce marine plastic pollution in India. A GIS map has been created to show plastic input from different river basins. In order to address the challenges of marine litter in India, a guiding model has been developed. According to the predictive model, India produces 536 thousand tons of municipal[…]
Plastic research, policies, waste management, socioeconomics, challenges, and opportunities are discussed. Marine plastic studies have focused on a few locations, providing information on distribution and interactions with organisms. In addition to scientific investigation, enforcement, improvisation, and, if necessary, framing new policies, integrated technologies to manage plastic waste are essential.