In 2010, Indonesia estimated as the second-largest country in the world that donates plastic to the sea. This study aims to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of microplastics in tropical estuaries. The sampling was carried out in Benoa Bay with four repetitions representing the wet and dry seasons. Spatially it was found that the highest microplastic abundance around the Suwung landfill, while the lowest at Badung River Estuary, middle, and an inlet of the Benoa Bay. The highest percentage to the lowest microplastic based on the size was 500–1000 μm (37.9%), >1000 μm (35.7%), 300–500 μm (22.1%), and <300 μm (4.3%), while based on the shape were fragments (73.19%), foam (17.02%), fiber (6.38%), and granule (3.40%). No significant differences were found between the wet and dry seasons based on the abundance, but significantly varied based on size and shape. Polymers of microplastics were dominated by polystyrene, polypropylene, and polyethylene.
Guidelines on Extended Producer Responsibility for Plastic Packaging. These guidelines provides framework for implementation of Extended Producer Responsibility. The Guidelines provide the roles and responsibilities of Producers, Importers, Brand Owners, Central Pollution Control Board, State Pollution Control Board or Pollution Control Committees, recyclers and waste processors for effective implementation of Extended Producer Responsibility. Please note[…]
The Policy Brief gives an overview of the current waste management related policy ecosystem and provides preliminary recommendations based on desk research, specifically on marine litter in India.
The Government of India announced the Plastic Waste Management Amendment Rules, 2021, which will prohibit the manufacture, import, stocking, distribution, sale and use of single use plastics (including polystyrene and expanded polystyrene) by 2022. To stop litering and promote reuse, the thickness of plastic carry bags have been increased. Please note that “English text follows[…]
Environment ministers around the globe agreed to create an Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee to create an international agreement to end plastic pollution at the fifth United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA), held in Nairobi, Kenya, between February 28 and March 2, 2022.
Developing country facilities, financial and human resources prevent complete application of sampling, analysis, and observation protocols used in developed countries neccitating adaptations. Researchers in Vietnam developed and standardized a methodology for microplastic monitoring in sediments and surface waters of 21 environments (rivers, lakes, bays, beaches) of eight cities or provinces. The concentrations of microplastics in[…]