Despite Indonesia being considered as second highest source of marine plastic debris in the world, few studies have been conducted on plastic debris in Indonesia, particularly microplastics. By using a simple device to simultaneously grade floating microplastics, we investigated microplastic contamination in the ecosystem of small islands in Bintan Regency, Riau Island Province, Indonesia. The average number of floating microplastics from 11 beach stations around Bintan Island was 122.8 ± 67.8 pieces per station, which corresponds to 0.45 pieces per m3 and represents a low-medium microplastic pollution level compared to the levels of other marine environments worldwide. Polymer identification using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy successfully identified Polyethylene (PE) (17.3 ± 8.3%), Low Density PE (17.6 ± 5.5%), Oxidized LDPE (<0.1%), Polypropylene (PP) (54 ± 13%), PP Atactic (<0.4%), PP isotactic (<0.2%) and Polystyrene (PS) (10.4 ± 9.1%) from different forms and shapes of microplastics i.e., fragments (50.9 ± 4.9%), fibers (26.2 ± 3%), granule (13.1 ± 3.8%) and films (9.8 ± 5.1%). We suggest that the generation of these microplastics was likely due to physicochemical processes, including biological degradation in this tropical ecosystem. Environmental implication of microplastics in this area increases the problems associated with ingestion, bioaccumulation and biomagnification across trophic levels and co-pollutants absorbed onto microplastics.
Guidelines on Extended Producer Responsibility for Plastic Packaging. These guidelines provides framework for implementation of Extended Producer Responsibility. The Guidelines provide the roles and responsibilities of Producers, Importers, Brand Owners, Central Pollution Control Board, State Pollution Control Board or Pollution Control Committees, recyclers and waste processors for effective implementation of Extended Producer Responsibility. Please note[…]
The Policy Brief gives an overview of the current waste management related policy ecosystem and provides preliminary recommendations based on desk research, specifically on marine litter in India.
The Government of India announced the Plastic Waste Management Amendment Rules, 2021, which will prohibit the manufacture, import, stocking, distribution, sale and use of single use plastics (including polystyrene and expanded polystyrene) by 2022. To stop litering and promote reuse, the thickness of plastic carry bags have been increased. Please note that “English text follows[…]
Environment ministers around the globe agreed to create an Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee to create an international agreement to end plastic pollution at the fifth United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA), held in Nairobi, Kenya, between February 28 and March 2, 2022.
Developing country facilities, financial and human resources prevent complete application of sampling, analysis, and observation protocols used in developed countries neccitating adaptations. Researchers in Vietnam developed and standardized a methodology for microplastic monitoring in sediments and surface waters of 21 environments (rivers, lakes, bays, beaches) of eight cities or provinces. The concentrations of microplastics in[…]