Identification and removal of micro- and nano-plastics: Efficient and cost-effective methods

MPs can be less than 5 mm size, while NPs are less than 100 nm, and both can be detected in various forms and shapes in the environment to alleviate their harmful effects on aquatic species, soil organisms, birds, and humans. In efforts to address these issues, the present review discusses about sampling methods for water, sediments, and biota along with their merits and demerits. Various identification techniques such as FTIR, Raman, ToF-SIMS, MALDI TOF MS, and ICP-MS are critically discussed. The detrimental effects caused by MPs and NPs are discussed critically along with the efficient and cost-effective treatment processes including membrane technologies in order to remove plastics particles from various sources to mitigate their environmental pollution and risk assessment.

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