MPs can be less than 5 mm size, while NPs are less than 100 nm, and both can be detected in various forms and shapes in the environment to alleviate their harmful effects on aquatic species, soil organisms, birds, and humans. In efforts to address these issues, the present review discusses about sampling methods for water, sediments, and biota along with their merits and demerits. Various identification techniques such as FTIR, Raman, ToF-SIMS, MALDI TOF MS, and ICP-MS are critically discussed. The detrimental effects caused by MPs and NPs are discussed critically along with the efficient and cost-effective treatment processes including membrane technologies in order to remove plastics particles from various sources to mitigate their environmental pollution and risk assessment.
The paper provides new insights into marine environments and human activities and suggests plastic waste should be controlled through laws that regulate waste sources and plastic additives in order to solve the problem of plastic accumulation in the oceans.
The paper strengthens the evidence that microplastics are present in the studied biota, suggesting that they are transferred between trophic levels through the interconnected food chain/web. The presence of micro plastics in fish guts highlights the need for further research on processing interventions for reducing microplastic contamination.
PPE (face masks and gloves) were surveyed at six Indian beaches. There were 496 PPE counted with an average density of 1.08 × 10−3 PPE m−2. Previous studies found similar PPE density. Face masks accounted for 98.39% of all PPE recorded, while gloves accounted for only 1.61%. As a result of the increase in vaccination[…]
The research seeks to depict and reduce marine plastic pollution in India. A GIS map has been created to show plastic input from different river basins. In order to address the challenges of marine litter in India, a guiding model has been developed. According to the predictive model, India produces 536 thousand tons of municipal[…]
Plastic research, policies, waste management, socioeconomics, challenges, and opportunities are discussed. Marine plastic studies have focused on a few locations, providing information on distribution and interactions with organisms. In addition to scientific investigation, enforcement, improvisation, and, if necessary, framing new policies, integrated technologies to manage plastic waste are essential.