Formation, behavior, properties and impact of micro- and nanoplastics on agricultural soil ecosystems (A Review)

This paper presents a comprehensive and current summary of the literature on the sources and properties of MNPs in agricultural ecosystems. The study also provides a methodology for the isolation and characterization of MNPs recovered from soil, MNP surrogate materials that mimic the size and properties of soil-borne MNPs, and the transport of MNPs through the soil matrix. The impacts and risks of agricultural MNPs on crops, soil microorganisms, and fauna are also presented in this paper. The paper also highlights that long-term studies are needed to address current knowledge gaps in formation, soil surface and subsurface transport, and environmental impacts of MNPs, including those that are derived from biodegradable mulch films, which ultimately undergo complete mineralization but will reside in the soil for several months. The complexity and variability of agricultural soil ecosystems and the difficulty in recovering MNPs from soil call for a deeper understanding of the fundamental relationships between MPs, NPs, soil biota, and microbiota, including the ecotoxicological effects of MNPs on earthworms, soil-dwelling invertebrates, and beneficial soil microorganisms, as well as soil geochemical attributes.

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