Microplastics are continuously released into the terrestrial environment from sources where they are used and produced. These microplastics accumulate in soils, sediments, and freshwater bodies, and some are conveyed via wind and water to the oceans. The concentration gradient between terrestrial inland and coastal regions, the factors that influence the concentration, and the fundamental transport processes that could dynamically affect the distribution of microplastics are unclear. We analyzed microplastic concentration reported in 196 studies from 49 countries or territories from all continents and found that microplastic concentrations in soils or sediments and surface water could vary by up to eight orders of magnitude. Mean microplastic concentrations in inland locations such as glacier (191 n L−1) and urban stormwater (55 n L−1) were up to two orders of magnitude greater than the concentrations in rivers (0.63 n L−1) that convey microplastics from inland locations to water bodies in terrestrial boundary such as estuaries (0.15 n L−1). However, only 20% of studies reported microplastics below 20 μm, indicating the concentration in these systems can change with the improvement of microplastic detection technology. Analysis of data from laboratory studies reveals that biodegradation can also reduce the concentration and size of deposited microplastics in the terrestrial environment. Fiber percentage was higher in the sediments in the coastal areas than the sediments in inland water bodies, indicating fibers are preferentially transported to the terrestrial boundary. Finally, we provide theoretical frameworks to predict microplastics transport and identify potential hotspots where microplastics may accumulate.
The paper provides new insights into marine environments and human activities and suggests plastic waste should be controlled through laws that regulate waste sources and plastic additives in order to solve the problem of plastic accumulation in the oceans.
The paper strengthens the evidence that microplastics are present in the studied biota, suggesting that they are transferred between trophic levels through the interconnected food chain/web. The presence of micro plastics in fish guts highlights the need for further research on processing interventions for reducing microplastic contamination.
PPE (face masks and gloves) were surveyed at six Indian beaches. There were 496 PPE counted with an average density of 1.08 × 10−3 PPE m−2. Previous studies found similar PPE density. Face masks accounted for 98.39% of all PPE recorded, while gloves accounted for only 1.61%. As a result of the increase in vaccination[…]
The research seeks to depict and reduce marine plastic pollution in India. A GIS map has been created to show plastic input from different river basins. In order to address the challenges of marine litter in India, a guiding model has been developed. According to the predictive model, India produces 536 thousand tons of municipal[…]
Plastic research, policies, waste management, socioeconomics, challenges, and opportunities are discussed. Marine plastic studies have focused on a few locations, providing information on distribution and interactions with organisms. In addition to scientific investigation, enforcement, improvisation, and, if necessary, framing new policies, integrated technologies to manage plastic waste are essential.