Microplastics are continuously released into the terrestrial environment from sources where they are used and produced. These microplastics accumulate in soils, sediments, and freshwater bodies, and some are conveyed via wind and water to the oceans. The concentration gradient between terrestrial inland and coastal regions, the factors that influence the concentration, and the fundamental transport processes that could dynamically affect the distribution of microplastics are unclear. We analyzed microplastic concentration reported in 196 studies from 49 countries or territories from all continents and found that microplastic concentrations in soils or sediments and surface water could vary by up to eight orders of magnitude. Mean microplastic concentrations in inland locations such as glacier (191 n L−1) and urban stormwater (55 n L−1) were up to two orders of magnitude greater than the concentrations in rivers (0.63 n L−1) that convey microplastics from inland locations to water bodies in terrestrial boundary such as estuaries (0.15 n L−1). However, only 20% of studies reported microplastics below 20 μm, indicating the concentration in these systems can change with the improvement of microplastic detection technology. Analysis of data from laboratory studies reveals that biodegradation can also reduce the concentration and size of deposited microplastics in the terrestrial environment. Fiber percentage was higher in the sediments in the coastal areas than the sediments in inland water bodies, indicating fibers are preferentially transported to the terrestrial boundary. Finally, we provide theoretical frameworks to predict microplastics transport and identify potential hotspots where microplastics may accumulate.
This paper examines the exposure of river systems to MPW in order to better understand the sedimentary processes that control the legacy of plastic waste. According to the study, about 0.8 million tonnes of MPW entered rivers globally in 2015, affecting about 84 percent of rivers by surface area. According to the study, the amount[…]
The article summarizes the results of various scientific studies regarding the presence of microplastics in different drinking water sources. Further research is required to understand the effects of microplastic bioaccumulation on living organisms. There is a growing concern about microplastic pollution in the environment, which needs to be addressed and further research should be conducted[…]
Based on a custom framework for MPP policy that combines circular economy (CE) and life-cycle perspectives, the paper provides an overview of existing policies and identifies further policy options. Approximately 300 million tons of MPP are produced annually by land-based sources, which severely impacts marine ecosystems and harms livelihoods. Microplastic pollution is an issue that[…]
This review seeks to identify the complexity of impacts to marine organisms through the food web from plastic contamination. Contamination from plastic debris in marine environments pose a substantial risk to marine organisms, food webs and the ecosystem. The study investigates the intrusion of plastics into the marine food web and the subsequent consequences of[…]
The review highlights the extent and rate of the biodegradation of bioplastic in composting, soil, and aquatic environments. Bioplastic alternatives to petroleum-derived plastics are becoming more and more prevalent and have the potential to make a significant contribution to reducing plastic pollution in the environment. However, their biodegradation is highly dependent on various factors in[…]