In developing countries, applying extended producer responsibility (EPR) systems to plastic waste poses a number of challenges, including the existence of a market-based collection system and high transportation costs, insufficient waste collection services in rural areas, the lack of facilities to manage certain types of waste, insufficient pollution prevention and free-riding. Additionally, some of the challenges may be minimised by varying the responsibilities of producers, focusing on rural and remote areas, engaging informal sectors, creating joint facilities in recycling parks, expanding waste management services, increasing the use of EPR, and minimizing free riding.
This paper examines the exposure of river systems to MPW in order to better understand the sedimentary processes that control the legacy of plastic waste. According to the study, about 0.8 million tonnes of MPW entered rivers globally in 2015, affecting about 84 percent of rivers by surface area. According to the study, the amount[…]
The article summarizes the results of various scientific studies regarding the presence of microplastics in different drinking water sources. Further research is required to understand the effects of microplastic bioaccumulation on living organisms. There is a growing concern about microplastic pollution in the environment, which needs to be addressed and further research should be conducted[…]
Based on a custom framework for MPP policy that combines circular economy (CE) and life-cycle perspectives, the paper provides an overview of existing policies and identifies further policy options. Approximately 300 million tons of MPP are produced annually by land-based sources, which severely impacts marine ecosystems and harms livelihoods. Microplastic pollution is an issue that[…]
This review seeks to identify the complexity of impacts to marine organisms through the food web from plastic contamination. Contamination from plastic debris in marine environments pose a substantial risk to marine organisms, food webs and the ecosystem. The study investigates the intrusion of plastics into the marine food web and the subsequent consequences of[…]
The review highlights the extent and rate of the biodegradation of bioplastic in composting, soil, and aquatic environments. Bioplastic alternatives to petroleum-derived plastics are becoming more and more prevalent and have the potential to make a significant contribution to reducing plastic pollution in the environment. However, their biodegradation is highly dependent on various factors in[…]